8. THE 14 PRINCIPLES OF MULTIMEDIA LEARNING

14 PRINCIPLES OF MULTIMEDIA LEARNING

SUMMARY

There are 14 Principles of Multimedia Learning.

  1. Multimedia Principle:

People learn better when texts and pictures are presented together rather than from words alone.

  1. Modality Principle:

People learn better when images/texts or labelled images are presented as narration rather than reading a lengthy on-screen texts.

  1. Redundancy Principle:

People learn better when images or labelled images are presented as narration rather than as both narration and on screen text.

  1. Spatial Contiguity Principle:

People learn better when corresponding text and pictures/animations are presented near rather than far from each other in time or on the screen.

  1. Temporal Contiguity Principle:

People learn better when corresponding narration and images/animations are presented simultaneously rather than successively.

  1. Coherence Principle:

People learn better when extraneous narration, sounds, images, and videos are excluded rather than included.

  1. Interactivity Principle:

People learn better when audience are allowed to control the pace of the presentation rather than continuous presentation tanpa peluang kawalan.

  1. Signaling Principle:

People learn better when the presentation include word/voice signals that cue the  presentation organization rather than without signals .

  1. Segmenting Principle:

People learn better when a multimedia lesson is presented in learner-paced segments rather than as a continuous lesson.

  1. Pre-training principle:

People learn better from a multimedia lesson when they receive pre-training on each component of the lesson (terms and characteristics of the main concept) rather than without any pre-training.

  1. Personalization Principle:

People learn better when texts are presented in conversational style rather than in formal style.

 

  1. Voice Principle:

People learn better when words are spoken in a standard-accented human voice rather than in a machine voice or in foreign-accented human voice.

  1. Image Principle:

People do not necessarily learn better or probably undesirable to have a multimedia lesson which include the speaker’s image on the same screen.

  1. Individual Differences Principle:

Design effects are more effective for low-knowledge learners rather than for high-knowledge learners regarding the relationship between texts, images, animations or sound in a multimedia presentation.

 

 

 

 

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